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Environment & Energy

 

          Background - Environmental and Energy Consulting.

          In Political Ecology and Environmental Policy, Climate Governance is the diplomacy, mechanisms and response measures "aimed at steering social systems towards preventing, mitigating or adapting to the risks posed by Climate Change. Climate Change, also called global warming, refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth. An overwhelming scientific consensus maintains that Climate Change is due primarily to the human use of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. The gases trap heat within the atmosphere, which can have a range of effects on ecosystems, including rising sea levels, severe weather events, and droughts that render landscapes more susceptible to wildfires. A definitive interpretation is complicated by the wide range of political and social science traditions that are engaged in conceiving and analyzing Climate Governance at various levels and across different arenas.

In the past two decades, a paradox has arisen between rising awareness about the causes and consequences of Climate Change and an increasing concern that the issues that surround it represent an intractable problem. Initially, Climate Change was approached as a global issue, and Climate Governance sought to address it on the international stage. This took the form of Multilateral Environmental Agreement (MEAs), beginning with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992. Except for the Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement, international agreements between nations have been largely ineffective in achieving legally binding emissions cuts. At the end of the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period in 2012, starting from 2013 there is no legally binding Global Climate Regime until 2016 when 172 Nations signed the Paris Agreement. This collective global political commitment resolves the alternative political narratives that called for more flexible, cost effective and participatory approaches to addressing the multifarious problems of Climate Change. These narratives relate to the increasing diversity of methods that are being developed and deployed across the field of Climate Governance.

 

          Strategic Collaborations.

                     At DELTTA social responsibility is at the heart of what we do. Our environmental and energy global strategic advisory and consultancy services enables communities to take responsibility for the environmentally sustainable management of their waste whilst returning energy and fuels to them, thereby providing a genuine closed loop solution operating at community scale. However, being a good corporate citizen is more than just about offering award-winning, industry-leading, sustainable technology. As such, we are continuously improving the way in which we engage with society starting with being a strong and dynamic collaborator of diverse talent. DELTTA engages and works in collaboration with resources and Affiliates via our Knowledge Center Network of more than twenty-five hundred (2500) world class renowned team of Engineers, Technicians, Structured Finance Specialist and Communities from Japan, China, Germany, Ghana, Norway, Switzerland, London, United States, Canada, Guyana and India to advise and support global companies and institutions who are leaders in the Environment and Energy Industries. This enables us to undertake the most challenging Environmental and Energy engineering projects. DELTTA and their Global Strategic Advisory and Consultancy Collaborators have more than 60 years of experience in various sectors that includes Environmental, Waste Management - Waste to Energy (WtE) or Energy from Waste (EfW), Landfill Mining, Landfill Land Reclaiming and Development, Water Resources Management, Oil and Gas, Renewable Energy – Hydro Power, Solar, Power, Wind Power and Transportation and Distribution.

 

          Strategic Environmental & Energy Solutions

          DELTTA draws upon the experience of their Global Strategic Advisory and Consultancy Collaborators within their Knowledge Center Network to provision bold visionary and revolutionary Industries Best Practices Strategies in the form of state-of-the-art fifth (5th) industrial age Proprietary Technological Solutions. Clients engage DELTTA primarily for strategic business and legal advisory and consultancy solutions which focus on developing and deploying strategic critical informed consent decisions towards Climate Change Mitigation Options and Adaptation Responses for sustainable ‘GREEN ECONOMIES PATHWAYS’ economic, social and political development and growth. In 2009, DELTTA created Toolkits of Industries Best Practice Strategies for the Business Services, Environment & Energy, Financial Services and Natural Resources Industries to deliver this mission focus Industries Best Practice Strategies to our clients.

Various Industries took notice, particularly, the Environment and Energy Sectors, which allowed DGHI, TGWIL together with their Knowledge Center Network to welcome opportunities to work with Government, their Local Municipalities, the Private Sector, Non-Government Entities, and Non-Profit Organizations to become vested in their Mission of provision finance, develop and deploy UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement CDMs and REDD+ Mitigation Options and Adaptation Responsive Solutions for realizing Sustainable Development Goals. The Finance, Environment and Energy Toolkits of Industries Best Practices Strategies allow DELTTA and TGWIL to provide premier solutions which encompasses a compilation of bold, visionary and revolutionary technology modus operandi in provisioning Foreign Private Direct Investments (FPDI) together with Proprietary Technology. Thus, facilitating the Design, Build, Own, Operate Maintain and Transfer (FD-BOOMT) of a Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 5th Generation State of the Art Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Zero Waste/Zero Carbon Waste to Energy (ZWZCWtE) System that includes a Landfill Mining and Reclamation (“LFMR”) Program and a mix SYNGAS\LGN Gas Power Generation Plant with Foreign Private Direct Investment (FPDI) via a Public Private Partnership (PPP).

 

          Customized Innovative Waste Management Solutions.

          DELTTA recognizes that each client and project has its own requirements and objectives. The experience of our Knowledge Center Network helps in recognizing this and creating customized solutions specific for the client and the project. State-of-the-art technologies and innovations are developed around the world for almost every aspect of environmental engineering. New environmental regulations are continuously developed and practice standards are regularly introduced. DELTTA Knowledge Center Network works together to customize the solutions for our clients by introducing new innovations that work in line with the most recent regulatory requirements and standards to ensure that the solutions are long term and sustainable. DELTTA provides a “one-stop-shop” advisory and consultancy solutions via a Global Knowledge Centre comprising a network of world class renowned team of personnel from Japan, China, Germany, Ghana, Norway, Switzerland, London, United States, and Canada, Guyana and India and resources to serve our clients. Creating customized solutions based on innovative and proven innovative technologies and practices that are in line with local regulatory requirements and conditions are our main focus to develop high value sustainable solutions for our customers.

 

          TECHNOLOGIES

          Gasification

          DELTTA Mission to provision finance, develop and deploy UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement CDMs Mitigation Options and Adaptation Responsive Solutions for realizing Sustainable Development Goals focuses on Gasification Technologies. Gasification provides the best Mitigation Options and Adaptation Responses for the Waste Management Industry to resolve the problems that improperly disposed Waste have on the Environment thus significantly contributing to the sustainable ‘GREEN ECONOMIES PATHWAYS’ economic, social and political development and growth. The world is facing rapid growth in energy demand, persistently high energy prices, and a challenge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from mismanaged waste disposal, fossil fuel and coal power generation and other human activities. No single technology or resource can solve the problem, but gasification can be part of the solution along with renewable power sources such as wind and energy efficiency programs. To meet these challenges DELTTA created Toolkits of Industries Best Practices Strategies for Plasma Gasification in order to deliver this mission focus Industries Best Practice Strategies whereby our clients can make censoriously informed consent Waste Management decisions to foster a healthy green clean environment.

          Syngas Production

          There are several common “non-gasification” processes that are used to produce synthesis gas (syngas) on an industrial scale. They are 1) Partial Oxidation, 2) Auto thermal Reforming, and 3) Steam Methane Reforming.

          Partial Oxidation (POX):

          POX is a chemical reaction that occurs when a sub-stoichiometric mixture of the feedstock and pure oxygen (O2) are reacted together, producing a syngas with a high concentration of hydrogen (H2). In refineries, POX is often used to convert heavy liquid hydrocarbon wastes to hydrogen, which is then used in the refinery to process the incoming crude oil. The feedstock is fed into the POX reactor (see figure below), where the carbon in the feedstock is reacted with oxygen in an exothermic reaction, forming carbon monoxide (CO). Since there is a lack of oxygen, the reaction does not complete to carbon dioxide (CO2).

Typically, all or a portion of the CO then flows to a water shift reactor, where the CO reacts with steam, forming a mixture of CO and H2: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 (the overall H2/CO ratio in the product stream is 1.6 to 1.7). The CO2 is then removed using conventional acid gas removal technologies, resulting in a high H2 concentration stream. There are two primary types of POX systems: 1) Thermal POX (TPOX), which occurs at >2,200°F and is used with high sulfur feedstocks, and 2)
(C + ½ O2 → CO) Catalytic POX (CPOX), which uses low sulfur feedstocks with a sulfur-sensitive catalyst, allowing the reactions to occur in a lower temperature range of 1,475-1,650°F, which reduces energy consumption.

 

          Steam Methane Reforming:

                     Steam Methane Reforming, or SMR, uses natural gas (methane) as the feedstock to produce a high H2 concentration syngas that can be used in refineries and other industrial processes. In SMR, a heated mixture of natural gas and steam flows through pipes that are filled with a nickel-based catalyst (see figure below).

The reforming reactions, which occur in a range of 1,470 - 1,740 °F, are endothermic, and significant external heat is required. This heat is typically provided by burning additional natural gas outside the tubes. The reforming occurs in two reactors in series, with approximately 90% of the methane converted in the first reactor, and the balance in the second reactor. The overall reaction is as follows: CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2 (the H2/CO ratio is 3:1). The syngas stream then flows to a water shift reactor, where additional steam reacts with the CO to form CO2, and the water in the steam is converted to additional H2CO + H2O → H2 + CO2. . The CO2 in the stream is typically removed using pressure swing adsorption (PSA). The PSA unit uses molecular sieves to adsorb the impurities from the syngas stream, resulting in a very high hydrogen product stream with a H2/CO up to 5:1.

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